For the successful rollout of electric vehicles (EVs), fast charging stations (FCS) are required to reduce long charging times and to provide locations for charging. The FCSs, however, consume a substantial amount of power in order to charge EVs and thus will require upgrades to the grid infrastructure. To avoid these upgrades, investments in solar can be used to offset the power obtained from the grid, and energy storages (ES), to store energy when economic. The FCS needs to consider the techno-economics of different solar and ES technologies. As a potential ES investment, recycled EV batteries, which may no longer be used for transportation, can be repurposed with a second-life for use by these stations. A model will be developed for the FCS, where their locations will be determined considering vehicle traffic. In each location, the optimization will determine if PV and ES investments are economical, while considering the FCS operational costs.
Optimizing Smart Buildings Flexibility to Accommodate Photovoltaic Generation
The energy consumption from buildings account for 40% of the total carbon emission in the United States. To reduce emissions and electricity bills, investments are being made in installations of photovoltaic and energy storage systems in buildings. However, these investors need to determine the size of these resources and also if a return on investment can be obtained from the cost savings. We are developing an optimization framework for investors to not only determine if the investment in renewable resources is economically justified, but also which type of photovoltaic and battery technologies to invest in. This framework can be catered towards any building, or even a campus of buildings, thus aligning it with CEI’s vision for a scalable clean energy future.
Advisor: Miguel A. Ortega-Vazquez, Electrical Engineering