E8 Member Meetings

E8 (formerly known as Element 8) is a member organization of private accredited impact angel investors solely focused on investing in promising, early-stage cleantech companies. E8 partners with outstanding entrepreneurs from all across North America to build successful companies and bring their innovations to market.  Accredited Investors interested in membership in E8 are invited to participate as a guest in one meeting per year. If you’re interested in membership and would like to attend an upcoming meeting, please email info@e8angels.com.


CleanTech Alliance Breakfast Series

The CleanTech Alliance Breakfast Series is your opportunity to rub elbows with distinguished cleantech executives from across Washington State, the Pacific Northwest and beyond. Presented by Perkins Coie, join 100 cleantech industry leaders for a monthly conversation featuring a tremendous lineup of distinguished speakers.

Each event is held on the second Wednesday of each month (7:30 a.m. to 9:00 a.m.) from September 2018 through May 2019 (except October, which is reserved for the Energy Leadership Summit).

For more information and to register for the events, visit the CleanTech Alliance website.



Professor Cody Schlenker Wins National Science Foundation CAREER Award

Schlenker will research photochemistry for solar energy, other sustainability applications under NSF Faculty Early Career Development Program

June 25, 2019

Headshot of Professor Cody W. Schlenker

Cody W. Schlenker, WRF Innovation Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Clean Energy

Cody W. Schlenker, Washington Research Foundation Innovation Assistant Professor in Chemistry and Clean Energy, has received a National Science Foundation (NSF) Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) award. The CAREER program offers the NSF’s most prestigious awards for early-career faculty, supporting professors with the potential to serve as academic role models in research and education and to lead advances in the mission of their department or organization. Schlenker will receive $685,000 over 5 years to develop a rational understanding of photochemistry — reactions driven by energy from light that is absorbed by a molecule.

“This NSF award will allow my group to target new types of photochemical reactivity with the potential to fundamentally alter research approaches in solar energy storage and other fields,” said Schlenker. “Photochemistry is both ubiquitous and seemingly simple, but thoroughly exploring a reaction often reveals a complex multistep process that is difficult to control. We’ll develop a set of tools that will allow us to understand and control light-driven reactions step-by-step, and later we can develop an optimal molecule for a given reaction or application.”

The building blocks of renewable energy

Schlenker first joined UW in 2011 as a postdoctoral NSF Science, Engineering, and Education for Sustainability (SEES) Fellow, studying novel semiconducting polymers with chemistry professor David Ginger and life cycle assessment of emerging energy technologies with mechanical engineering professor Joyce Cooper.

“Through my NSF SEES fellowship, I was able to branch out from my core discipline of chemistry to reflect on the sustainable development of renewable energy technologies,” explained Schlenker. “It forced me to think about technological development from ‘cradle to grave,’ which means accounting for all of the energy and material ins and outs over the lifetime of a device. Even if we develop the perfect photovoltaic that’s cheap, efficient, and easy to manufacture and install, we will still require new ways to store that excess energy.”

This holistic view of technology has shaped Schlenker’s research trajectory since becoming a faculty member of the chemistry department and the Clean Energy Institute (CEI) in 2014. He investigates the fundamental science behind using light as a renewable energy source, including photovoltaics as well as the underlying principles of battery materials and solar fuel generation. The focus of his CAREER Award research is on nitrogen-containing molecules called aza-aromatics, known for their adaptable light-absorbing and electronic properties. By leveraging the interaction between aza-aromatic molecules and water, Schlenker believes there is a real opportunity to identify new molecular design strategies for artificial photosynthesis, with the potential for scientists and engineers to more efficiently create fuels directly from sunlight and water. Aza-aromatic materials have also been utilized in various photovoltaic devices and next-generation battery platforms.


Test samples of photovoltaic materials from the Schlenker lab (Matt Hagen/Clean Energy Institute)

Sustainable research infrastructure at UW

Schlenker cites the research and teaching network at UW as a significant factor in the success of his lab.

“Throughout the university, there are multiple layers of close-knit partnerships that have been seeded and cultivated on the basis of years of mutual trust and understanding,” he shared. “At CEI, director Dan Schwartz has fostered an institute that acts as a support network for its researchers. Chemistry department chairs Mike Heinekey and Paul Hopkins have also exemplified this model, and we can leverage these partnerships to create and operate shared user facilities.”

When Schlenker established his research group, he partnered with UW researchers in chemistry, materials science & engineering, and chemical engineering to bring a versatile laser system for advanced kinetics experiments to the Molecular Analysis Facility (MAF). Located in the Molecular Engineering and Sciences Building (MolES), MAF is an instrumentation facility for microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface science that is open to UW users and external users from academia and industry. Using these advanced laser spectroscopies, Schlenker and his group can capture a molecule in its excited state after it absorbs light, similar to high-speed digital imaging. This capability is crucial for his research, especially under the CAREER grant, as it allows Schlenker’s group to understand where and how quickly energy will move within a molecule, or how that molecule might react with another at a different energy level.


Inside the ultrafast laser system in the UW Molecular Analysis Facility (Cody Schlenker/Clean Energy Institute)

“Energy flows at incredibly fast speeds, but energy is stored at much slower speeds,” said Schlenker. “Bridging this gap to understand storage in terms of flow is a central challenge of our research, and this instrument makes it possible. To study the excited state of some of these molecules, we operate the laser at intervals of around 50 femtoseconds. For comparison, to capture a bullet as it penetrates glass, a slow-motion camera must record at about 50,000 frames per second. Divide that one frame into 50,000 frames, and then again into 50,000 more frames, and that is roughly the timescales we are talking about — quadrillionths of a second.

“Thanks to successful partnerships within CEI and MAF, we can make this highly-specialized instrument broadly available to scientists on and off campus instead of housing it in a single isolated lab. This effort has been exceedingly successful, and my group has also benefitted from this community — all of the other users have different expertise and knowledge bases, which has led to a very inspiring cross-pollination of ideas.”


From right: Schlenker, postdoc Maraia Ener, and graduate students Tim Pollock and Dana Sulas setting up the ultrafast spectrometer in the UW Molecular Analysis Facility (Alex Morrison/Ultrafast Systems)

Educating the researchers of tomorrow

CAREER grants also include provisions for education and outreach activities, which are a core component of Schlenker’s philosophy as a professor.

“The educational outlay of the CAREER grant will provide further support for our outward-facing partnerships as well as my students’ own education,” said Schlenker. “We’ve already been working with CEI’s outreach efforts to incorporate research questions into science education materials, and we’re excited to officially launch a program called Research Integrated Science Education (RISE) to solidify our partnerships with groups like UW Math Science Upward Bound. Graduate students in my group will host summer workshops for Seattle-area high school students interested in pursuing STEM majors, which will help address pipeline challenges faced by under-represented groups.

“Undergraduate research opportunities in our lab will also be funded by this grant. We have a history of hosting students through the summer Research Experience for Undergraduates program, and there are two undergrads on one of our upcoming research proposals. I believe research experience is a critical aspect of undergraduate education, as it teaches students how to work in a lab, how to formulate a hypothesis, and how to decide what data they need to gather to test that hypothesis. Undergraduate mentorship is also beneficial for graduate students — if you can teach something, you have a thorough understanding of it.

“Finally, this funding will provide another layer of support to ensure my graduate students can invest their time in the educational opportunities provided by UW and CEI. They are already passionate about educating others and growing as scientists, and this funding will ensure they can keep doing both.”

Since 1995, the NSF CAREER program has provided over $1.5 billion in funding to over 3,600 junior faculty that exemplify the role of teacher-scholars through research, education and the integration of education and research within the context of the mission of their organizations.

Former cleantech executive leads development of University of Washington energy research and technology center

Kevin Klustner, Executive Director of the Center for Advanced Materials and Clean Energy Technologies (CAMCET).

Kevin Klustner, Executive Director of the Center for Advanced Materials and Clean Energy Technologies (CAMCET). University of Washington

Kevin Klustner named Executive Director of Center for Advanced Materials and Clean Energy Technologies

May 9, 2019

The University of Washington and its Clean Energy Institute named Kevin Klustner executive director of the Center for Advanced Materials and Clean Energy Technologies, or CAMCET. When complete, CAMCET will be a 340,000-square-foot building that will bring together UW scientists and engineers with industry, civic and nonprofit partners to accelerate clean energy solutions for a healthy planet.

The building will house space for research, learning and cleantech prototyping, testing and validating. It will also offer space for organizations aligned with the UW’s clean energy innovation mission. CAMCET is the first building under consideration for a location in the UW West Campus — an area designated in the Campus Master Plan for 3 million square-feet of new development that will foster a thriving collaboration ecosystem for the UW and partners

A rendering of CAMCET’s exterior from the predesign report. CannonDesign

“UW and its Clean Energy Institute have helped establish Washington as a leader in clean energy innovation and the CAMCET building will catapult Washington to even greater heights,” said Washington Gov. Jay Inslee. “With this center, our students will get the best education and prepare for jobs of the future, while our cleantech companies will grow and create good jobs for our economy.”

Map of University of Washington's West Campus in Seattle, WA

Map of University of Washington’s West Campus in Seattle, WA. Owen Freed/Clean Energy Institute

“UW is a powerhouse in advanced materials and clean energy research and development,” said Klustner. “CAMCET will connect these UW researchers with local and global industry and nonprofit partners to bring critical clean technologies to the world. CAMCET, and West Campus at large, represents a new model for buildings on campus that will greatly benefit our students, faculty, and region and I’m proud to help lead this effort.”

Klustner has held a variety of executive roles in technology and cleantech companies. Most recently, he was the CEO of Powerit Solutions, a cloud-based industrial energy efficiency platform, which was acquired by Customized Energy Solutions. Prior to Powerit, he was the CEO of Verdiem, a venture-backed software company in the energy efficiency space. Klustner was also the chief operating officer of WRQ, a privately held enterprise networking company. While there, he helped grow the company from $15 million to $200 million in revenues.

“Kevin brings a wealth of cleantech industry experience that will help ensure CAMCET builds on UW’s strengths to create a hub for clean energy research and technology in the Pacific Northwest,” said Daniel Schwartz, UW CEI Director and Boeing-Sutter Professor of Chemical Engineering. “External partners that join UW in CAMCET will have access to a fantastic talent pool and the instruments and technology testbeds needed to advance their ventures. With CAMCET, UW will chart an exciting course for how we educate future clean energy leaders and build a community dedicated to getting clean energy technologies to market faster to combat climate change.”

A rendering of CAMCET’s interior from the predesign report. CannonDesign

In January 2018, the Washington State Legislature allocated $20 million to the UW to establish CAMCET. The building will house:

  • Research
  • Industry/ Government/ NGOs
    • Washington Clean Energy Testbeds: The CEI’s open-access, fee-for-use facility for prototyping, testing, and validating clean technologies. The facility takes no intellectual property from external users. It also hosts Entrepreneur-in-Residence and Investor-in-Residence programs available to cleantech innovators across the region.
    • Startup lab modules and hot desks.
    • Market-rate leasable spaces.
  • Learning
    • Active learning spaces for students.
    • Seminar and meeting rooms.
    • Collaboration Spaces.
  • Public
    • Venues for events, conferences, and K-12 and public outreach.

UW’s West Campus is located just south of the forthcoming U District Link Light Rail Station and within short walking distance of greenspace and the Portage Bay waterfront.

Subject to UW Regents’ approval, UW will seek a developer for CAMCET in 2019, with construction currently slated to begin in fall 2020.


For more information, contact Suzanne Offen with the Clean Energy Institute at +1 206-685-6410 or soffen@uw.edu.

Lilo Pozzo Recognized for Outstanding Leadership in Clean Energy Education

Pozzo installing a solar panel on the roof of a house in Jayuya, Puerto Rico (Dennis Wise / University of Washington)

Clean Energy Education and Empowerment Initiative honored Pozzo for student mentorship and leadership of post-Hurricane Maria recovery initiative in Puerto Rico


April 3, 2019


Lilo Pozzo, Weyerhaeuser Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at UW

Lilo Pozzo, the Weyerhaeuser Endowed Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Washington (UW), was recognized by the Clean Energy Education and Empowerment Initiative (C3E) for outstanding leadership in education. Pozzo was one of eight honorees at C3E’s annual Women in Clean Energy Symposium.


“It was really outstanding to receive this award,” said Pozzo. “At the conference, it was wonderful to see and connect with so many incredibly successful women in energy, especially outside of my own ecosystem as an academic advanced materials researcher. From geothermal to wind, from promoting clean energy access in low-resource communities to high-level policy and utilities work, everyone supports one another in their careers.”


C3E was established in 2010 by the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM), a high-level forum comprised of 25 countries and the European Commission that aims to advance clean energy technology within the global economy. The United States’ C3E program is led by the U.S. Department of Energy in collaboration with the MIT Energy Initiative (MITEI), the Stanford Precourt Institute for Energy, and the Texas A&M Energy Institute. Out of recognition that the ideas and talents of all members of society are essential to meeting our future clean energy challenges, C3E aims to close the gender gap in STEM fields and increase women’s participation and leadership in the clean energy sector.


As part of the C3E award, Pozzo received $8,000 to advance women in clean energy, which she says she will use to support both graduate students from her research group and undergraduates involved in entrepreneurship.


“I’ll use the funds to support my students, whether that’s for a patent application to advance their technology or travel funds for an equity initiative,” says Pozzo. “In academia, I honestly feel that mentorship is our most important activity, whether that’s as a research advisor or discussing different paths through a career, I’m able to help plant the seeds of impactful work. My students will collectively achieve far more than I ever could alone.”


Pozzo investigates the relationship between a material’s nanoscale structures and its macroscale properties. She is an expert on the development of new polymeric, colloidal, and nanoscale materials for advanced energy applications — including solar photovoltaics, batteries, and fuel cells — and in 2013, she was recognized by the U.S. Department of Energy with the Early Career Award for standout researchers in the field.


AFM and sTEM images from Pozzo’s lab, depicting self-assembled nanoribbons of the conjugated polymer DPPDTT. Conjugated polymers are potentially useful in advanced devices like organic solar cells and flexible or biocompatible electronics. By creating and controlling nanostructures within the material, Pozzo and her research group are improving the electronic performance of conjugated polymer films in order to compete with conventional inorganic electronics. Read more >

“Along with her excellence in research, Lilo’s accomplishments as an educator are simply unparalleled,” said Dan Schwartz, director of the UW Clean Energy Institute (CEI) and Boeing-Sutter Professor of Chemical Engineering. “I’ve never witnessed someone so able to excite students by the entrepreneurial and humanistic contributions technology can make to society.”


In November 2017, just two months after Hurricane Maria devastated Puerto Rico, Pozzo led a team of CEI and global health students to the rural mountain municipality of Jayuya to assess energy needs for the local clinic and residents that rely on electricity for healthcare. They also installed four solar PV-battery “nanogrids” to power devices like an inflatable orthopedic mattress and refrigerators for insulin storage. The initiative gained national recognition, including in a New York Times article on the aftermath of the hurricane. Pozzo went on to raise the funds needed to transform the initiative into a year-long project‐based learning course for clean energy students. Returning to the island in March 2018, her team installed 17 additional nanogrids while continuing their long-term field study on the impact of power loss on public health. In July, they collected data from PV-battery systems with integrated loggers and administered surveys to gauge satisfaction with solar energy as an emergency energy supply. The team recently published their findings in IEEE Power & Energy magazine. They found that over a 10 to 15-year lifetime, PV-battery systems are cheaper than diesel generators for locations likely to experience more than 66 total days of power outages, and are already an improvement for patients that require electricity for multiple sustained hours or overnight.


In the months following Hurricane Maria, Pozzo (third from right) led UW teams to Jayuya, Puerto Rico to install solar-battery nanogrid systems and assess energy needs for healthcare.


“Moving forward, I’m hoping to continue the project with high-level data analysis,” explained Pozzo. “I’m working with CEI professors Daniel Kirschen and Youngjun Choe on proposals to analyze vulnerable populations so we can recommend improvements in preparation, and I hope a project will take place in Puerto Rico this year so we can continue making a positive impact.


“I’m also proud to say that this initiative has inspired students to take the lead. In Guatemala and Ghana, CEI students are working on deploying clean energy to families with limited resources. I’m mentoring one group of undergraduate students that is developing a solar-powered medical oxygen concentrator for remote clinics, and another group is improving the design of solar-battery ‘nanogrids’ like the ones we deployed in Puerto Rico.”


As part of the ChemE Innovation Program, Pozzo has led three student teams to raise several million dollars in outside funding to launch startup companies after graduation. This year, she is mentoring three groups working on sustainability projects. Along with the aforementioned oxygen generators, her students are developing anti-malaria drugs specially formulated for children, and a device to break down pharmaceuticals in waste water.


“Lilo has an exceedingly rare commitment to mentorship,” said Greg Newbloom, who was a Ph.D. student and postdoc in Pozzo’s lab and is the founder and CTO of Membrion. Pozzo is a co-inventor of Membrion’s silica-based membranes used in energy storage and water purification. “Professors often take a heavy-handed approach to ensure ‘success’ in research or a startup, which can be to the detriment of the student’s learning. Lilo has guided and empowered me to carry out my own vision as both a researcher and entrepreneur. To this day, she is an amazing source of information and support.”

Pozzo (right) and electrical engineering Ph.D. student Mareldi Ahumada holding a battery

Pozzo (right) and electrical and computer engineering Ph.D. student Mareldi Ahumada with a portable battery for a solar-powered nanogrid in Puerto Rico. (Dennis Wise / University of Washington)

While her mentorship raises all students to new heights, Pozzo’s impact has been especially critical to the retention of Latina graduate students in engineering. She sees inclusion as the most significant barrier for women in clean energy.


“Inclusion is often a more severe problem than diversity,” said Pozzo. “While an institution can strive to establish a ‘pipeline’ of women to recruit and enroll, if opportunities aren’t equal within a program or there is an exclusionary, aggressive environment, those women may end up leaving their field. For allies, it starts with recognizing when inclusion is missing in opportunities like seminar invitations or the members of a research proposal.”


Jessica Soto-Rodríguez (Ph.D. ’18) recalled, “When I had doubts about my ability and drive as a researcher during my first couple of years, Lilo offered to take time out of her busy schedule to talk to me every week. She told me to see my research as an opportunity to do something about the problems in the world, and to use my creativity to provide the solutions.”


Membrion Awarded Department of Energy Grant to Develop Ion-Exchange Membranes at Washington Clean Energy Testbeds

UW spinout will improve flow battery performance, cost under Small Business Innovation Research grant; Becomes third company to win federal funding for work at Testbeds


March 21, 2019


Dr. Greg Newbloom, founder and CTO of Membrion and UW chemical engineering Ph.D. and postdoc

Membrion, a molecular materials startup founded by University of Washington (UW) chemical engineering alumnus Greg Newbloom (Ph.D. ’14, postdoc ’15-‘18), won $150,000 in Department of Energy (DOE) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I funding to develop nanoporous ceramic membranes for non-aqueous redox flow batteries at the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds. The SBIR program allows small businesses to fulfill federal R&D needs, stimulating technological innovation, commercialization, competition, and economic growth. The UW Clean Energy Institute’s Washington Clean Energy Testbeds are an open-access facility for scaling next-generation clean energy technology. Testbeds users from industry and academia can fabricate prototypes, test devices and modules, and integrate systems at the facility.


“As a small startup, having access to the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds’ top-of-the-line instruments has allowed us to perform the cutting-edge science required to win major federal grants and compete with established companies,” said Newbloom, also the CTO of Membrion. “We’re utilizing the Testbeds’ advanced microscopes, spectroscopes and controlled environmental chambers for Phase I of this SBIR grant, and we’ll also take advantage of the Testbeds’ scale-up facility as we progress towards commercialization. The Testbeds continue to be a valuable contributor to Membrion’s ongoing success.”


Membrion membrane under microscope

Microscope image of Membrion’s silica-based membrane technology

Membrion’s technology is based on silica gel, the same material that is used in the preservative desiccants found in beef jerky packages. By coating a piece of fiberglass with the silica gel and curing it in acid, Membrion can create a ceramic membrane with controllable pore sizes. In flow batteries, membranes keep the positive and negative electrolytes separated while letting ions travel to complete the circuit. Membrion can also engineer smaller or larger pores to adapt the technology to filter drinking water or purify pharmaceutical molecules.


“Membranes are both a significant cost contributor and performance inhibitor for redox flow batteries,” said Newbloom. “When we first started out, everyone was trying to develop better plastic membranes using the same 50-year-old manufacturing process — we had to completely rethink the technology to create such a disruption.”


Greg Newbloom with Membrane

Dr. Greg Newbloom holding one of Membrion’s silica-based membranes


Newbloom founded Membrion in 2016 based on his postdoctoral research with UW chemical engineering professor Lilo Pozzo. Pozzo is a co-developer of the technology, and remains involved with the company as a scientific advisor.

John Plaza, CEO of Membrion and former Entrepreneur-in-Residence at the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds


John Plaza, a veteran cleantech innovator, met Newbloom at the Testbeds while serving as the facility’s Entrepreneur-in-Residence. The Testbeds’ Entrepreneur-in-Residence provides Testbeds users and the public with insights about the commercialization process, target markets, product development, and fundraising strategies. Plaza became president and CEO of Membrion in June 2017.


“Globally, the market for ion-exchange membranes exceeds $5 billion dollars,” said Plaza. “We are initially targeting energy storage markets including flow batteries, which are an environmentally-friendly option for energy storage. With our membrane’s decreased cost and increased performance, new energy storage solutions can become economically viable for grid-scale storage of renewables. When we bring our product to market later this year, we estimate that our membrane can significantly reduce the costs of these technologies and dramatically increase their market potential in the next few years.”


Membrion is the third company to win federal funding for work at the Testbeds. In 2018, MicroConnex was awarded $980,000 by the U.S. Department of Defense’s NextFlex program to develop flexible hybrid electronics, and Vesicus was awarded $225,000 in Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) funding to develop nanoporous thin films.


J. Devin Mackenzie

J. Devin MacKenzie, technical director of the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds

“At the Testbeds, we seek to lower the barriers to early-stage cleantech startup success by providing the ability to test, validate, and demonstrate new technologies,” said J. Devin MacKenzie, technical director of the Testbeds and UW professor of materials science & engineering and mechanical engineering. “We’re proud to support Membrion as they approach the scale-up phase.”


Membrion has received $2.23 million in seed funding from investors including Bellingham Angel Investors, E8 and the E8 Fund, Sand Hill Angels, Sierra Angels, the National Science Foundation, and several individuals. Membrion has also has been backed by Amazon’s Catalyst program, the Murdock Charitable Trust, and the CalTech Rocket Fund. Upon completion of Phase I SBIR research in 2020, the company will become eligible for Phase II funding up to $1 million. The company also plans to raise Series A funding in 2020.


About the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds
The University of Washington Clean Energy Institute (CEI) created the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds to accelerate the development, scale-up, and adoption of new technologies in solar harvesting, energy storage, and system integration. This open-access facility in Seattle, founded on the principle that users retain all intellectual property, offers customized training and use of instruments for fabricating prototypes, testing devices and modules, and integrating systems. The facility also houses meeting and office space where users from academia and business work and collaborate. Through special events, Entrepreneur-in-Residence and Investor-in-Residence programs, and community-sponsored networking opportunities, the Testbeds are an active gathering space for cleantech innovators and investors. wcet.washington.edu


Clean Energy Institute Graduate Fellow Begins Princeton University Physics Professorship

Dr. Sanfeng Wu (Ph.D. ’16) talks to CEI about his research in UW professor Xiaodong Xu’s lab, his recent postdoctoral fellowship at MIT, and the future of his work at Princeton


March 18, 2019

Princeton University physics professor and 2014 CEI Graduate Fellow Sanfeng Wu

Q: What was the focus of your Ph.D. in physics at UW?

A: I joined Professor Xiaodong Xu’s group in 2011. Over the course of my Ph.D., I studied several different aspects of two-dimensional (2D) materials, including novel structure synthesis, nano-optical devices, and clean energy devices. These materials are crystals that are one atomic layer thick, and they often exhibit unique properties. In particular, I worked with monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, some of which are very interesting semiconductors.

Xiaodong created an excellent research environment in his lab. I was lucky to learn from him, work with him, and also develop a friendship with him.


How did CEI help to further your research and professional development?

In 2014, I was fortunate to be selected as a member of the first cohort of CEI Graduate Fellows to research optimization of 2D materials for light-harvesting devices. Through CEI, I also learned about the most recent developments in clean energy technologies. This was essential to the shaping of my understanding of the link between fundamental physics and realistic applications. As a physicist, I was trained in the fundamental aspects of natural phenomena, but I had little experience in making use of them for real-world challenges. My new lab will emphasize on both fundamental research and realistic device applications. Overall, my experience at CEI helped build my confidence in my ability to address real-world challenges in my research. It was a pleasure to become part of the CEI community.


As a CEI Graduate Fellow, Sanfeng Wu described exciting developments in 2D semiconductors at the 2014 Seattle Chamber of Commerce Regional Leadership Conference


You recently completed a postdoc as a Pappalardo Fellow at MIT. Describe the relationship between your Ph.D. at UW and your work at MIT — how did your research progress?

My experience at UW directly informed my research at MIT — both research groups are playing active roles in the exciting new field of 2D topological devices. At MIT, I also worked with monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, this time to study quantum electronics. 2D topological devices are useful not only for optoelectronic devices, but may also be useful for researchers trying to create exotic new particles on a chip.


What will your primary research focus be at Princeton?

My group at Princeton will explore exotic quantum phenomena in 2D materials and seek quantum-based solutions for real world challenges. We are driven by a fundamental curiosity about quantum physics, which continues to produce surprises in the lab even after about a century of investigation. Quantum technology may hold the key to future devices that we use for computation, memory, and communication. It might also impact our clean energy solutions in an unprecedented way. However, quantum technology is still in its infancy — we need to explore new quantum materials, discover new quantum phenomena, and then create and optimize the devices. Looking ahead to the future, quantum physicists will need to take some “moonshots” to produce high rewards with the right breakthrough. I hope my lab can play an active role in such developments.


What advice would you give graduate students pursuing academic careers in the field of clean energy?

While I’m not seasoned as an advisor, I will share one feeling from my own experience — it is to follow your heart and always remember the big question that originally drove you to become a researcher. You might be developing skills in a seemingly different field, but if you always keep your goal in mind, you may one day find that you hold the key to something that nobody else has.


Related: CEI Graduate Fellow Earns MIT Pappalardo Fellowship in Physics

Science Highlights Readings

These downloadable new articles deal with clean energy topics. They have highlighted vocabulary and comprehension questions. They were originally circulated with our educators newsletter.

Printable solar cells reading

Nanocrystals reading

Lithium Ion Batteries reading

Energy Storage reading

Energy Grid Reading

UW Solar Researcher Named to Forbes 30 Under 30: Energy List


Dr. Daniel Kroupa’s research on perovskite thin films could create an efficiency breakthrough for solar photovoltaics when integrated with silicon panels


December 18, 2018


Dr. Daniel Kroupa, Washington Research Foundation Innovation Postdoctoral Fellow in Clean Energy, has been named to the Forbes “30 Under 30: Energy” list for 2019. Each year, Forbes magazine selects 30 rising leaders under 30 years old working on energy solutions. Kroupa, a member of chemistry professor Daniel Gamelin’s research group, is developing a method to increase sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiency in solar photovoltaic (PV) cells. The technology works by printing an inexpensive perovskite-based coating onto the surface of standard silicon cells.

Dr. Daniel Kroupa, Washington Research Foundation Innovation Postdoctoral Fellow in Clean Energy


“The concept of a solar cell with two or more absorber layers is not new, but most commercial ‘multijunction’ PVs are expensive and limited to space-based applications,” explains Kroupa. “Our technology is unique because we’re working with a standard silicon cell as our primary PV layer, which is optically coupled to a second spectral conversion layer. Instead of developing a new device and manufacturing process, we’re making an inexpensive and simple upgrade to a mature design with just one additional step.”


Silicon PV cells exhibit poor conversion of high-energy blue and UV light to electricity, resulting in commercial cell efficiencies peaking near 24%. Attempting to engineer further gains in efficiency in silicon-only panels has generally provided diminishing returns on costs. Kroupa and his colleagues in the Gamelin lab have engineered perovskite coatings that absorb blue light and re-emit red light, releasing two low-energy photons for each high-energy photon collected. This phenomenon is known as “quantum cutting.” Not only does the layered design capture more of the sun’s spectrum, each photon that the silicon cell does absorb generates an electron that can be collected as electric current, so each blue photon can actually generate two electrons. Silicon panels with an additional quantum cutting spectral conversion layer could achieve an overall conversion efficiency up to 35%, with only a small increase in material and manufacturing cost.


“Better utilizing the solar spectrum and generating two electrons per high-energy photon would allow us to revolutionize silicon solar panel performance,” says Kroupa. “Now that we’ve developed the quantum cutting material, we can make significant strides for silicon-based PV at the characteristic low costs of metal-halide perovskites. In order to get to this point, we had to tune the perovskite chemical composition for optimal solar absorption while maintaining efficient quantum cutting. I’m fortunate to work with a great team in the Gamelin lab with broad expertise ranging from synthetic inorganic chemistry to advanced spectroscopic characterization, which has really accelerated the development of this exciting new class of solar absorber materials.”


Combined with the ability to build on a mature global manufacturing and distribution network for silicon PV, an increase to 35% efficiency could decrease the cost of solar PV-generated electricity by 10-30%. While stand-alone solar PV arrays are already competitive with natural gas and coal, the total cost of integrating these resources at scale remains high — energy storage and demand response solutions are needed to manage natural fluctuations in solar power. In particular, battery-based energy storage remains expensive. However, a significant decrease in PV prices could tip the scales in favor of the overall solar power package and promote rapid and widespread adoption within the market.


Kroupa and colleagues in the Gamelin group are establishing a company to commercialize quantum cutting technology for solar PV. They are currently developing their product at the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds. They have received support from the Washington Research Foundation and commercial solar panel manufacturers to perform pilot-scale testing and incorporate the perovskite coatings into existing manufacturing lines.


Kroupa joins the ranks of previous Forbes 30 Under 30: Energy honorees from the UW Clean Energy Institute: UW electrical and computer engineering professor Baosen Zhang, former UW chemistry postdoctoral fellow Dr. Giles Eperon, and former CEI Graduate Fellow in chemical engineering Dr, Matt Murbach.

Northwest Business Community Honors Washington Clean Energy Testbeds for Contributions to Local Energy Economy

Mike Pomfret at the Testbeds

Pomfret working on the facility’s roll-to-roll printer

Testbeds Managing Director Michael Pomfret Wins CleanTech Alliance & Northwest Environmental Business Council Energy Leadership Achievement Award


December 14, 2018


Two Northwest organizations representing the clean energy business community, the CleanTech Alliance and the Northwest Environmental Business Council (NEBC), have presented Michael Pomfret, managing director of the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds, with their 2018 Energy Leadership Achievement Award. The honor recognizes Pomfret’s work to accelerate the pace of cleantech commercialization in the region and beyond at the Testbeds. Pomfret oversaw the development of this open-access facility for prototyping, testing, and validating solar, battery, and system software/ hardware integration technologies, from construction, through opening in 2017, to tremendous first-year growth.


The award was announced at the Energy Leadership Summit, where 400 industry leaders and policymakers from across the Northwest convened to address current challenges and future opportunities for clean energy. The CleanTech Alliance and NEBC highlighted Pomfret’s accomplishments in not only establishing a state-of-the art facility to help users de-risk a cleantech concept, but also his work to create a supportive home for cleantech innovators to grow and attract investors to the region.


Mike Pomfret headshot

Washington Clean Energy Testbeds Managing Director Michael Pomfret

“This award from clean energy industry leaders is an acknowledgement that, in a very short time, we have created an important facility for cleantech innovation in the Northwest,” said Pomfret. “I’m honored to receive this award and to work on behalf of UW researchers and businesses accelerating a clean energy future. I’m also proud that the Testbeds have attracted companies globally to do work here, and both in-state and out-of-state companies have hired UW graduates to work at the facility to advance product development.”


Pomfret is an expert in energy materials and devices. He has a Ph.D. in chemistry and has worked on energy device development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and for several cleantech startups.


“Mike has become an invaluable member of the Pacific Northwest cleantech community, and we can’t agree more that he deserves this recognition for his leadership at the Testbeds,” said Daniel Schwartz, director of the UW Clean Energy Institute (CEI), the organization that operates the Testbeds. “He has helped make the Testbeds into a dynamic realization of CEI’s goals, showing that partnerships between researchers and innovators in the private sector are a viable and fruitful pathway for cleantech.”


The Washington Clean Energy Testbeds serves a growing community of over 210 active users. This includes 29 cleantech startups, mid-size companies, and major corporations like Microsoft, as well as University of Washington (UW) scientists and engineers. Additionally, five of those 29 companies have operations based at the Testbeds where they use the facility’s instruments, trained experts, and networks to build their startups or develop new product lines. Testbeds users pay a per-use fee to use state-of-the-art instruments and access UW staff. External users retain all intellectual property developed at the Testbeds.


To best serve this mix of large and small enterprises and UW researchers, and to foster a vibrant cleantech ecosystem for the region, Pomfret has implemented several specialized programs at the Testbeds. The Entrepreneur-in-Residence (EIR) program, launched in partnership with UW CoMotion, is for users and others in the region interested in launching clean energy businesses. EIRs host regular public events and office hours to council established entrepreneurs and students. The Testbeds also host an Investor-in-Residence (IIR) program as a free consulting resource for local startups with E8, a cleantech-oriented angel investment group.


Leveraging UW’s clean energy research leadership and the Testbeds’ unique capabilities, Pomfret and Testbeds Technical Director and Professor J. Devin MacKenzie have helped local startups and cleantech companies win major research and development funding to advance their technologies. One current Testbeds user, MicroConnex in Snoqualmie, WA, recently secured a $1 million federally-funded research grant in partnership with UW researchers. Vesicus, an advanced materials startup, recently won $225,000 in Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) funding to develop nanostructured thin films for lithium-ion batteries at the Testbeds. Membrion, a UW spin-out and Testbeds user, just completed a $2.23 million seed funding round.


About the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds
The University of Washington Clean Energy Institute (CEI) created the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds to accelerate the development, scale-up, and adoption of new technologies in solar harvesting, energy storage, and system integration. This open-access facility in Seattle, founded on the principle that users retain all intellectual property, offers customized training and use of instruments for fabricating prototypes, testing devices and modules, and integrating systems. The facility also houses meeting and office space where users from academia and business work and collaborate. Through special events, Entrepreneur-in-Residence and Investor-in-Residence programs, and community-sponsored networking opportunities, the Testbeds are an active gathering space for cleantech innovators and investors. wcet.washington.edu

Professor Brian B. Johnson Leads Department of Energy-Funded Research to Halve Cost of Solar Power Electronics

UW researchers partner with University of Colorado Boulder, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and semiconductor manufacturer Wolfspeed to develop low-cost, high-efficiency inverters for solar photovoltaic power plants


November 14, 2018


The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has pledged $2.84M to a research team led by University of Washington (UW) electrical & computer engineering (ECE) professor Brian B. Johnson to lower the cost of power electronics in solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. The DOE’s long-term goal is to cut the cost of solar PV systems in half by 2030, down to $0.03/kWh over the lifetime of a system. The multi-institutional team includes UW ECE professor Daniel Kirschen, leading experts from the University of Colorado Boulder (CU), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and semiconductor manufacturer Wolfspeed.


Professor Brian Johnson Headshot

Brian B. Johnson, Washington Research Foundation Innovation Assistant Professor of Clean Energy and Electrical & Computer Engineering

Over a period of three years, Johnson’s team will develop ultra-low-cost electronics that convert direct current (DC) power from PV arrays into grid-compatible alternating current (AC) power. Unlike conventional DC-to-AC inverters used today which require a bulky and costly transformer to step up the low voltage that they produce, the proposed architecture is able to produce voltages up to the tens of thousands of volts using only electronics. The newly-proposed inverter will be assembled from many interconnected modular blocks where each block features a novel circuit design, state-of-the-art silicon carbide semiconductors, and advanced controllers. The resulting blocks are lightweight, self-contained, and autonomously-controlled, such that the overall system is modular and resilient to failures. This revolutionary design will reduce initial material and manufacturing costs by 30-50% compared to conventional inverters, and will also give higher energy efficiency due to a radically-new circuit design and the elimination of the external transformer.


“This project unites some of the latest advances in power electronics, wide-bandgap semiconductors, optimization, and controls into a concrete approach for PV system design,” said Johnson. “Along with the theoretical development of such a system, the hardware design phase will push the boundaries of what is physically possible and require us to think outside the box. Ultimately, the final prototypes must withstand extreme voltages and be amenable to low-cost manufacturing.”


In spring 2018, Johnson joined UW as a Washington Research Foundation Innovation Assistant Professor of Clean Energy and Electrical & Computer Engineering. Previously, he worked at NREL, focusing his research on next-generation controllers and energy conversion circuits for power grids and renewable energy systems. Clean power generators like solar PV installations are naturally much more distributed and volatile than centralized fossil fuel plants, so power engineers must create advanced, automated controls to maintain grid stability during surges in energy demand and generation. For solar PV, the supporting hardware, including inverters, wiring, and racks, often costs more than the modules themselves.


Daniel Kirschen

Daniel Kirschen, Close Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering

Daniel Kirschen, Close Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering, joined the DOE-backed team as an expert on the economics and optimization of power systems. He will play an active role in the design optimization phase, which aims to minimize system costs.


“While we obviously don’t have to pay for the energy that the sun provides, the cost of deploying PV systems remains high,” said Kirschen. “By optimizing the design of the power electronics, this project will make solar power more competitive.”


In the first year of the project, Johnson’s group will collaborate with CU’s Colorado Power Electronics Center (CoPEC) to develop the distributed control strategies, build a low-voltage testbed using six of the circuit-control blocks, and perform preliminary tests. In parallel, NREL will obtain market data and collaborate with both Johnson and Kirschen to design a cost-optimized system. The optimization process will reveal the design (device ratings, number of blocks, and other component values) which minimize overall cost.


The developed controllers and optimized system designs will be finalized in the second year, and the team will perform tests of a 2kV block with Wolfspeed’s latest devices. In the third year, Johnson’s group, the CU team, and NREL will construct a medium-voltage six-block system, which will be able to produce 13.2 kV of grid-compatible ac power with very high efficiency. The demonstration will take place at NREL, using their state-of-the-art Controllable Grid Interface to emulate a 13.2 kV grid interconnection. The cost-optimized marketing plan created by the UW-NREL partnership will be presented at a final project workshop with industry participants.


Revolutionary Printer for Sustainable Electronics Comes to Washington Clean Energy Testbeds

Joint Center for Deployment and Research in Earth Abundant Materials (JCDREAM) awarded $631K to Testbeds to install world’s first roll-to-roll inkjet printer for electronics with sub-micron features
UW professor J. Devin MacKenzie will use printer to develop cheap, sustainable alternative to rare-earth materials used in solar panels, displays, and touchscreens


November 6, 2018


The Joint Center for Deployment and Research in Earth Abundant Materials (JCDREAM), a Washington state research collaborative, has awarded $631K to University of Washington (UW) materials science & engineering and mechanical engineering associate professor J. Devin MacKenzie and the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds. MacKenzie will use the funds, which UW will supplement with $187K, to purchase and install an ultra-high-resolution electronics printer developed at SIJ Technology, Inc. and Japan’s National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. When integrated with the existing roll-to-roll printer at the Testbeds, it will be the first system capable of high-throughput printing at sub-micron feature sizes. The printer will be available to academic and industry Testbeds users for research and development, prototyping, and commercial manufacturing. Advances in printed electronics will allow next-generation electronic devices to be sustainably manufactured with earth-abundant materials.


“We can’t wait to bring such a revolutionary device to the Testbeds thanks to JCDREAM,” said MacKenzie, Washington Research Foundation Professor of Clean Energy. “Our users will be able to print electronics using sustainable materials with finer control than ever before, and it will directly enable UW and industrial researchers to develop a sustainable alternative for a crucial element of flexible thin-film solar cells, displays and touch screens. This printer, the first of its kind in the world, can also be used to make improved sensors and higher power batteries.”


Devin Mackenzie and the roll-to-roll printer at the Testbeds

Professor J. Devin Mackenzie with the roll-to-roll printer at the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds.

Devices like solar cells, displays, and touchscreens often depend on rare earth and scarce materials that are transparent and electrically conductive, like indium tin oxide (ITO). ITO is typically deposited on photovoltaic materials in a solar panel or the liquid crystal display in a smartphone. But indium is expensive and geologically scarce, while manufacturing techniques like vapor deposition, lithography, and etching can be energy-intensive or materially wasteful. There are also growing concerns about indium’s health and environmental impacts.


UW models have shown that electrodes made of earth-abundant materials can be patterned with micron-scale features — smaller than can be seen by the human eye — to make them competitive with ITO electrodes. MacKenzie’s research group can now create this alternative using the advanced capabilities of the JCDREAM-funded printer, as conventional inkjet electronics printers are limited to 20-50 micron features. They will develop copper-based transparent electrodes with nanoscale features that will match or exceed the conductivity and transparency of conventional ITO electrodes. The additive printing process will also eliminate the etching process, reducing negative environmental impacts of the runoff as well as the amount of starting raw material.


The JCDREAM-funded printer

The printer developed at Japan’s AIST and SIJ Technologies. A custom version will be installed at the Testbeds, in order to integrate it with the existing roll-to-roll printer.

Ultimately, MacKenzie’s group aims to create a pathway to sustainable, scalable manufacturing of thin-film solar cells. Currently, indium is a limiting factor for thin-film solar cells due to its cost, toxicity, and long environmental life cycle. The copper-based transparent electrodes could also be used in flat-panel TVs, smartphones, and car windshields. Along with the copper-based alternative to indium electrodes that his group is developing, MacKenzie believes that the revolutionary printing system will enable sustainable solutions for batteries, sensors, fuel cells, and catalysts that rely on lithium, palladium, and cobalt.


“As a cleantech-focused facility that serves academic researchers, startups, and developed companies, the Testbeds are a perfect guidepost for JCDREAM’s mission,” said JCDREAM’s interim executive director David Field. “Our relationship with the Testbeds and other state-supported institutes is crucial to our success. We can’t wait to see the sustainably-sourced and sustainably-produced electronics that Testbeds users will create with this printer.”


JCDREAM is a research collaborative between Washington State University, UW, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, with additional involvement from academic, government, and industrial institutes in the state that are involved in education, research, or manufacturing. It was established in 2015 to stimulate innovation in the use of earth-abundant materials alongside Washington state’s strong clean energy and transportation industries. The upgrade to the Testbeds is just one element of JCDREAM’s program of research, development, deployment, and training, with the goal of national leadership on the challenge posed by unsustainable use of resources and rare earth minerals.

Startup Wins Federal Grant to Develop Battery Materials at Washington Clean Energy Testbeds

Vesicus will use Small Business Technology Transfer funds to develop nanostructured thin films for lithium-ion batteries at Testbeds

Krishna Nadella, Vesicus Co-Founder and CTO

August 3, 2018

Vesicus, an advanced materials startup founded by University of Washington (UW) mechanical engineering alumnus Krishna Nadella (PhD ’09, MS ’02) and UW mechanical engineering professor Vipin Kumar, won $225,000 in Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) funding to develop nanostructured thin films for lithium-ion batteries at the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds. The STTR program provides federal funding to cooperative research and development (R&D) initiatives between small businesses and research institutions. The UW Clean Energy Institute’s Washington Clean Energy Testbeds is an open-access facility for scaling next-generation clean energy devices and systems. Users from industry and academia can fabricate prototypes, test devices and modules, and integrate systems at the facility.


“The Testbeds enabled Vesicus to win this STTR award because they are specifically designed and equipped to support startup companies that need access to processing and characterization instruments,” said Nadella. “Often, companies like ours cannot afford this equipment unless they raise a lot of equity financing early on, typically before there is proof of product-market fit. More than just an office and lab space, the availability of both technical and business experts make the Testbeds a very effective place to build a clean energy startup.”

Vipin Kumar, Vesicus Co-Founder and CEO and UW Professor of Mechanical Engineering


Vesicus develops and commercializes novel cellular materials made up of cells ranging from tens of micrometers down to single-digit nanometers in size. Its STTR-funded R&D will center on a nanoporous polymer thin film with an initial application as an ion-exchange membrane in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. The nanoporous polyetherimide (PEI) film will have a higher porosity and thermal stability than the separators used in existing models. Compared to the current multi-step process for fabricating battery separators, Vesicus’ continuous process will also result in higher productivity, thereby increasing American global competitiveness in battery manufacturing. Vesicus is using the Testbeds’ roll-to-roll printer and characterization tools for this work.



Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of Vesicus’ nanoporous polyetherimide (PEI)

Krishna Nadella has been a serial entrepreneur in commercialization of advanced materials for the last 16 years. After the “dramatic failure” of his first startup venture, Nadella returned to UW to partner with his Ph.D. advisor, Kumar. The pair decided to start a new company to commercialize advanced materials and other technologies developed in Kumar’s lab.


Nadella explained, “Our mission at Vesicus is to conduct the R&D needed to develop these novel cellular materials into many applications, each of which may need a specific business model suitable for the particular industry — in some cases it may be licensing, in other cases it may be manufacturing spinoffs, or in yet others it may be joint ventures.”


J. Devin MacKenzie, Washington Clean Energy Testbeds Technical Director and Washington Research Foundation Professor of Clean Energy, Materials Science and Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering at UW

Testbeds Technical Director J. Devin MacKenzie was instrumental in their venture into the Li-ion battery industry. “Devin taught us the various issues faced by the industry and was part of multiple brainstorming sessions centered on potential solutions to these issues using our materials technology and knowledge,” said Nadella. MacKenzie, a Washington Research Foundation professor of clean energy and associate professor of materials science and engineering and mechanical engineering at UW, has over 17 years of experience as a cleantech entrepreneur. His research group will play a key role in characterizing and measuring the performance of Vesicus’ novel materials.


“This type of collaboration is exactly what we envision for the Testbeds,” said MacKenzie. “Vesicus is bringing a key research innovation to market, which is imperative for a clean energy future. We’re excited to support startups like Vesicus with access to top-end instrumentation like our roll-to-roll printer, as well as advising services from technical and industry experts.”


Vesicus aims to develop a scalable design for testing by the end of the summer. Along with Li-ion batteries, other applications of these tunable cellular films include substrates for flexible electronic circuits, separators for the oil and gas industries, and filter membranes for biological technology. Upon successful completion of STTR Phase I R&D, Vesicus will become eligible for Phase II funding.

Three Clean Energy Postdoctoral Fellows Awarded Mistletoe Research Fellowships

UW Chemistry’s Max Friedfeld, Daniel Kroupa, and Jian Wang will each receive $10k in Unfettered Research Grants


July 18, 2018


Washington Research Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow Max Friedfeld and Washington Research Foundation Innovation Postdoctoral Fellows in Clean Energy Daniel Kroupa and Jian Wang have been awarded Mistletoe Research Fellowships for the 2018-19 academic year. The Mistletoe Foundation builds bridges between the academic, entrepreneurial, and civil communities to create a more human-centered and sustainable future through technology. As part of the fellowship, awardees receive a $10,000 Unfettered Research Grant that can be applied to almost any university-approved research-related activity.


Friedfeld, a member of chemistry professor Brandi Cossairt’s group, researches the growth of quantum dots (QDs), which are semiconducting nanocrystals with a wide range of optoelectronic properties and high-tech applications. One such application is next-generation TV and display devices: QD displays can achieve up to a 30% increase in the spectrum of available colors while using 30 to 50% less power than LCD TVs. However, today’s commercial products often rely on cadmium-containing materials that are relatively toxic, so Friedfeld has explored QDs made of an alternate material: indium phosphide (InP). He is developing a new flow-based synthesis method for InP QDs that will grant access to greater control over the reaction, allowing for uniform QD growth and modification of InP QDs while taking less time, resulting in higher yields, and generating less waste than batch InP QD synthesis. To develop the technique, Friedfeld will utilize the Vapourtec V-3 pump flow reactor at the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds. Because the Testbeds already own this crucial piece of equipment, Friedfeld can use the Mistletoe funds to purchase auxiliary equipment and material supplies for his research. He ultimately wants to commercialize this technique, with the aim of improving upon today’s industrial-scale manufacturing of QDs for displays and other applications.


As a member of both Professor Cossairt and chemistry professor Daniel Gamelin’s research groups, Kroupa researches metal-halide perovskites, which have received considerable attention for next-generation solar cells due to low material and manufacturing costs and comparable performance to traditional silicon cells. Kroupa has found that selectively adding ytterbium ions (Yb) to cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3) results in a unique phenomenon known as quantum cutting. Quantum cutting occurs when a single high-energy photon is converted into multiple lower-energy photons by a semiconducting material, due to quantum effects. Using the facilities at the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds, Kroupa’s goal is to harness this property by coating conventional silicon solar cells with a layer of quantum-cutting perovskite. In conventional solar cells, a single photon can only excite a single electron. However, by converting extra energy from high-energy photons into additional low-energy photons that excite additional electrons, Kroupa’s perovskite layer could create a dramatic increase in efficiency at low cost.


Wang’s research in CEI Chief Scientist and chemistry professor David Ginger’s group focuses on an existential challenge for organic photovoltaics: converting heat losses into usable voltage. Organic photovoltaics are a low-cost and flexible alternative to other photovoltaic technologies. However, current device configurations are susceptible to large voltage losses in the form of non-radiative recombination, which occurs when the energy from a photoexcited electron is lost into the surrounding atoms as vibration. These losses often occur due to the use of fullerenes — large, geometric carbon molecules similar to graphene and carbon nanotubes — as the material that accepts excited electrons, so Wang is developing an understanding of non-fullerene acceptors. A guideline to avoiding non-radiative recombination would be invaluable for chemists trying to synthesize new materials for advanced organic photovoltaics. By integrating non-fullerene acceptors, Wang hopes to push forward the commercialization of organic photovoltaics.


In a letter to awardees, Mistletoe wrote, “It is our belief that unfettered research—without pre-negotiated deliverables—is necessary to produce the kinds of scientific and technological advances with the potential to change the world.”


Congratulations, Max, Dan, and Jian!

UW professor and Clean Energy Institute director Daniel Schwartz wins highest U.S. award for STEM mentors

Daniel Schwartz, a University of Washington professor of chemical engineering and director of the Clean Energy Institute. University of Washington

June 28, 2018

Daniel Schwartz, a University of Washington professor of chemical engineering and director of the Clean Energy Institute, received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring (PAESMEM) from the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Science Foundation this week. The OSTP and NSF recognized Schwartz for his commitment to interdisciplinary graduate education — helping students apply their research to societal and market needs — along with his dedication to recruiting and supporting Native American STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) scholars at the UW.

“I’m proud to join this cadre of dedicated educators and mentors helping students become leading scientists and engineers,” said Schwartz. “Focusing on clean energy science, engineering and resource management at UW has brought top students from across the country to Seattle, where they have partnered with Northwest tribes and businesses to ensure the future of energy is being created here.”

Starting in 2007, Schwartz launched an NSF-funded interdisciplinary graduate training program that used tribal clean energy research partnerships to attract top Native American students to graduate degree programs in UW’s College of the Environment and College of Engineering. The program was continued and expanded in partnership with Washington State University and Salish Kootenai College with U.S. Department of Agriculture funding, eventually including an undergraduate summer research experience program. Since the program launched, 26 students have completed doctoral degrees, with four awarded to Native Americans and four to other underrepresented minorities. Six masters have also been awarded — including two to Native Americans — and a tribal student-led startup company was founded. A signature achievement was the 2016 Alaska Airlines flight from Seattle to Washington, D.C. on fuel partially made from tribal forest thinnings.

“When you take into consideration the low number of Native Americans succeeding in graduate school STEM programs, you must recognize the number of tribal scholars that Dan has helped succeed, in one way or another,” said UW doctoral student Laurel James. “I, for one, would not be where I am today without his mentorship and opportunities for employment as I worked my way through the majority of my Ph.D. as a single parent.”

In addition to his role as an educator and mentor, Schwartz is the founding director of the UW’s Clean Energy Institute, an interdisciplinary research unit that supports the advancement of next-generation solar energy and battery materials and devices, as well as their integration with systems and the grid. With funds from the state of Washington, CEI has supported 152 graduate fellows pursuing clean energy research at UW. Through CEI, fellows receive professional development training, network with industry professionals and top clean energy researchers from around the world, and lead K-12 STEM outreach programs for Washington state schools.

While in Washington, D.C to receive the PAESMEM this week, Schwartz and other award recipients participated in the White House State-Federal STEM Summit to identify educational priorities for the nation.

To read the article on UWNEWS, click here.

WA Flexible Electronics Company and UW Team Win Federal Grant for Manufacturing

Roll-to-roll printing of high-density silver traces on a flexible substrate at the Testbeds. Image credit: Felippe Pavinatto

MicroConnex is partnering with UW professor J. Devin MacKenzie to develop a new manufacturing process for printed flexible electronics at the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds

June 28, 2018

J. Devin MacKenzie, technical director of the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds and Washington Research Foundation professor of clean energy, materials science and engineering, and mechanical engineering at UW, and MicroConnex, Inc., a Snoqualmie, Washington company that performs custom and low-volume flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) manufacturing for high-tech industries, have been awarded a $980,000 grant to solve a key need within the FHE technology base. Using the roll-to-roll printing capabilities of the Washington Clean Energy Testbeds, an open-access lab for fabricating and testing clean technologies, MicroConnex is developing the ability to fabricate novel copper-clad, high-density interconnects on flexible substrates at an industrially-relevant scale.


The research partnership is funded by NextFlex, a Department of Defense-backed consortium of academic institutions and industry partners focused on developing and manufacturing FHE in the United States. UW became one of 30 founding members of NextFlex in 2016.


“This collaboration leverages the Testbeds’ strengths in print-based roll-to-roll electronics and MicroConnex’s expertise in flex circuits and electroplating technology,” said MacKenzie. “We’re excited to create a lower-cost, greener alternative for flexible electronics in medical, defense, aviation, and consumer products.”


J. Devin MacKenzie, Washington Clean Energy Testbeds Technical Director and Washington Research Foundation Professor of Clean Energy, Materials Science and Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering at UW

Flexible hybrid electronics represent a new class of electronics that are bendable, stretchable and highly robust — well matched to applications such as wearable electronics, on-body sensors, and electronics for extreme environments. Furthermore, FHE are both thin and lightweight ­— the total thickness of FHE circuitry can approach 25 micrometers, and replacing rigid electronics with FHE can result in a weight reduction of over 50%. The ability to manufacture FHE at scale using advanced printing techniques could revolutionize devices like compact wireless transmitters, actuators, and medical sensors. In addition, FHE technology could be the cornerstone of a new era of “smart” and conformable consumer products to better interface with the human body, further advancing the efficiency and interconnectedness of our world.


“We are operating at the cutting edge of flex manufacturing, where high-risk, high-reward R&D is needed to deliver cost-competitive, high-tech solutions,” said Steve Leith, vice president of engineering and technology at MicroConnex and UW chemical engineering alum (B.S. 1991; Ph.D. 1998). “As a small company, MicroConnex would be challenged to manage the financial and technical risk of a project of this scope without the Testbed facilities and UW as a partner. The Testbeds’ state-of-the-art equipment, staff expertise, and IP terms are ideal for this research partnership and our business needs.”


MicroConnex’s new FHE manufacturing process is fully additive and eliminates many of the byproduct waste streams that result from conventional subtractive manufacturing techniques such as etching. Using the new process, a flexible substrate is first printed with a “seed” circuit pattern less than 300 nanometers thick, before the interconnects are built up along the pattern using electrodeposition. The project represents a significant advance for FHE manufacturing, moving away from typical subtractive circuitry fabrication processes while directly addressing fundamental challenges of circuit density, substrate flexibility, and manufacturing cost.

Close-up of the photopolymer plate (printing master) used for flexographic printing.
Image credit: Felippe Pavinatto

Ultra-high resolution silver conducting traces printed via flexography. Image credit: Felippe Pavinatto


MacKenzie is an expert in printable and flexible electronic materials, having spent over 17 years in the field as a scientist, research leader, and seed-stage entrepreneur. His research team and MicroConnex have already begun their work on the NextFlex grant, with initial focus on demonstrating the ability to print high-resolution silver nanoparticle seed films on flexible polyimide substrates.  Subsequent research phases will develop the electrodeposition processes necessary to transform the seed film into a working circuit.  At the conclusion of the project, MicroConnex and the Testbeds will provide direct access to the developed technology to NextFlex members for both R&D and commercialization purposes.

Clean Energy Solutions for Public Health in Puerto Rico

Electrical engineering Ph.D. student Mareldi Ahumada installs solar panels with a Jayuya community member. Photo: Dennis Wise / University of Washington

May 18, 2018

Chemical engineering professor Lilo Pozzo and a group of CEI researchers and public health scientists traveled to Jayuya, Puerto Rico this spring. The team visited homes and community centers, interviewing dozens of caregivers and residents who use electronic medical devices, as part of a long-term field study on the impact of power loss on public health. They also donated and installed 17 solar-battery nanogrid systems — prototypes of a sustainable, clean energy infrastructure that can buoy public health in rural areas when power grids fail (in addition to the four systems they installed on a November trip). Pozzo and her team hope to return later this summer.

Read the full UW story about their work here.

Pushing Magnetic Materials to the Atomically-Thin Limit

Researchers sandwiched two atomic layers of CrI3 between graphene contacts and measured the electron flow through the CrI3. Photo: Tiancheng Song

May 3, 2018

Magnetic materials are the backbone of modern digital information technologies, such as hard-disk storage. A UW-led team has now taken this one step further by encoding information using magnets that are just a few layers of atoms in thickness. This breakthrough may revolutionize both cloud computing technologies and consumer electronics by enabling data storage at a greater density and improved energy efficiency. In a study published in Science, the researchers report that they used stacks of ultrathin materials to exert unprecedented control over the flow of electrons based on the direction of their spins — where the electron “spins” are analogous to tiny, subatomic magnets. The team used instruments in CEI’s Research Training Testbed for this research. Read the full story featuring physics grad student Tiancheng Song and physics postdoc Xinghan Cai from CEI member faculty Xiaodong Xu’s lab here.

Inspiring Future Engineers

Gabriella Tosado building solar cars with middle school students. Photo: Tara Brown / University of Washington

Read the original story here.

Chelsea Yates
January 9, 2018

“I’m from Miami, Florida, where climate change isn’t just real; it’s personal,” says chemical engineering graduate student Gabriella Tosado. “My home city is seriously threatened by rising sea levels, and not only do I want to do my part to develop solutions to help fight climate change, I want to encourage young people — our next generation of engineers and scientists — to do the same.”

The first scientist in her family, Tosado triple-majored in chemistry, environmental science and policy, and religious studies at the University of Miami before switching gears to pursue a dual Ph.D. in chemical engineering and nanotechnology and molecular engineering. At the UW, she has melded her interests in sustainable engineering and community involvement through the UW Clean Energy Institute (CEI), where she’s been coordinating K-12 outreach programs since 2016.

We recently caught up with Tosado, who was named to the Husky 100 last spring, to learn more about her research and passion for inspiring underrepresented students — particularly young women and students of color — to pursue STEM disciplines and careers.

Why did you decide to study chemical engineering at the UW?

Although I love chemistry, I wanted to pursue a solutions-focused, application-oriented course of study for my graduate work, so I started looking at engineering programs.

When I visited Seattle to check out UW’s chemical engineering program, I discovered CEI, which had just opened on campus, and is working to advance clean energy technologies through solar energy, battery and grid research. When I realized I could get in on the ground floor of CEI’s innovative research, I decided that UW was the place for me.

Gaby Tosado in the lab

In her research, Tosado explores how to develop and stabilize perovskite solar cells.

Tell us about your research interests.

I’m working in ChemE professor Qiuming Yu’s lab to develop and stabilize perovskite solar cells. Perovskite is an exciting material that’s pretty new to the solar world. Its unique crystal makeup gives it a lot of interesting properties, and it can be printed on flexible materials, which is really cool. There’s hope that it may soon become a cheap, efficient, and high performing alternative to conventional — and expensive — silicon solar cells. But in its current state, it’s too unstable. We want to come up with a way to stabilize it so that it can be commercialized, ultimately making solar energy more accessible and affordable.

You are CEI’s first education fellow and outreach coordinator. What does that involve?

I develop outreach activities for CEI through the CEI Ambassador Program. This includes everything from creating curriculum materials and organizing tours to traveling across Washington state to teach K-12 students about clean energy and encourage them to think about going to college to study STEM. I’m proud to say that we’ve reached more than 40,000 students across the state to date.

Through CEI, I also started working with Pacific Science Center, and this year, I’m serving as a Pacific Science Center Communications Fellow. A few times each quarter, you can find me leading workshops and demonstrations at the Center as part of one of their many public programs, such as Meet a Scientist Day and Paws on Science Research Weekend.

Grabby teaching in an elementary class

Through CEI’s outreach ambassador program, Tosado travels across Washington state teaching students about clean energy and sustainable engineering. So far, the program has reached more than 40,000 students across the state. Photo: Tara Brown / University of Washington

You are a founding member of Women in Chemical Engineering (WChE). Why did this group get started?

ChemE assistant professor Elizabeth Nance started this group in 2016 to empower, educate and advocate for women in chemical engineering at all levels — undergraduates, graduate students, faculty and alums. In a male-dominated field like chemical engineering, I think it’s easy for women to feel invisible. With WChE we wanted to create a welcoming and open space for dialogue, mentorship and collaboration. We host professional development events, industry panels, and as the outreach coordinator, I create community networking and educational outreach opportunities. And we’re always excited to welcome new members! All students, regardless of gender, are encouraged to join and help us advocate for women in our discipline.

This fall, you organized “Introduce a Girl to Nano,” a nanotechnology fair to encourage young girls and women toward STEM fields. Tell us about it.

I organized “Introduce a Girl to Nano” on behalf of CEI and WChE and with help from some fantastic fellow UW students. In celebration of National Nanotechnology Day, our fair featured a variety of hands-on experiments for girls to try. They could react gold nanoparticles, race solar cars, create graphene circuits and rainbow thin film, and so much more! We offered STEM patches to Girl Scouts who participated, which was great fun.

This event was actually a follow-up to “Introduce a Girl to Photonics,” a fair I organized for CEI in 2016. That year 50 girls participated; this fall’s event brought in 277. I’m looking forward to seeing that number grow even more next year, though we haven’t decided on the theme yet. We’re considering robotics, coding and polymers, as well as a few others…

A lot of your outreach focuses on introducing underrepresented communities to science and engineering. In your opinion, why is it important to bring more diversity to STEM fields?

I think it’s important for girls and students of color to see women and people of color pursuing STEM disciplines in college. When I was a kid, no one in my immediate family had a background in science, and I didn’t really have any women mentors in science to look up to. So I carved out my own path. I often think about how meaningful it would have been to have someone to look to and say, “She did this; I can do this, too.” I’m now in a position where I can be that person for someone else, and that’s really motivating.

Speaking more broadly, engineers and scientists need to come up with solutions to today’s challenges, but to do so effectively, we need to be more creative and diverse in our problem-solving and ways of thinking. We need dynamic solutions in STEM, and the only way to get them is to diversify the field. The more difference, the more opportunity to cultivate and implement new ideas and approaches.

Students with electronics

“I often think about how meaningful it would have been to have someone to look to and say, ‘She did this; I can do this, too.’ I’m now in a position where I can be that person for someone else, and that’s really motivating,” says Tosado. Photo: Tara Brown / University of Washington

Why do you make time for outreach?

Outreach keeps me sane! In graduate school, there are many failures. You design, you test, and more often than not, you fail. So you start again. There’s a lot of stress.

But in outreach there’s so much wonder and excitement; it’s infectious and promising! The smiles on kids’ faces when they test out solar spinners they’ve just made, or when they realize they can make a battery from scratch — those moments are awesome. And I can’t tell you how much it brightens my day to see a bunch of little girls line up to race solar cars. That’s the best!

“Providing clean energy to the inhabitants of our planet is a major challenge to future generations. The University of Washington is to be congratulated for establishing an Institute where faculty and students can work together to tackle the difficult global challenge of energy sustainability.”
– Mildred Dresselhaus, Professor of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Emerita and Institute Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
“Energy competition is opening up in a variety of ways, the push for carbon control will continue, and the rate of technology advancement is exponential. All the things I’ve seen at the CEI are just perfect for the way we see things going in energy. You guys are at the cutting edge. We’re counting on you.”
– Ronald Litzinger, President, Edison Energy